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The behavior of the default equality comparison, that instances with different identities are always unequal, may be in contrast to what types will need that have a sensible definition of object value and value-based equality. Such types will need to customize their comparison behavior, and in fact, a number of built-in types have done that.

The following list describes the comparison behavior of the most important built-in types.

Numbers of built-in numeric types ( Numeric Types — int, float, long, complex ) and of the standard library types monroo fashion denim dress women casual stylish blouses designs fat ladies clothes Enjoy Shopping Shop For Cheap Wholesale Price Clearance Cost 46gORvg2Hn
and decimal.Decimal can be compared within and across their types, with the restriction that complex numbers do not support order comparison. Within the limits of the types involved, they compare mathematically (algorithmically) correct without loss of precision.

Strings (instances of Discount Low Cost Natural And Freely Abbille wholesale women floral lace casual dress for plus size dress Cheap Shop Cheap Sale Affordable Recommend Discount gw5YCIB2X
or unicode ) compare lexicographically using the numeric equivalents (the result of the built-in function ord() ) of their characters. [4] When comparing an 8-bit string and a Unicode string, the 8-bit string is converted to Unicode. If the conversion fails, the strings are considered unequal.

Instances of tuple or list can be compared only within each of their types. Equality comparison across these types results in unequality, and ordering comparison across these types gives an arbitrary order.

These sequences compare lexicographically using comparison of corresponding elements, whereby reflexivity of the elements is enforced.

In enforcing reflexivity of elements, the comparison of collections assumes that for a collection element x , x == x is always true. Based on that assumption, element identity is compared first, and element comparison is performed only for distinct elements. This approach yields the same result as a strict element comparison would, if the compared elements are reflexive. For non-reflexive elements, the result is different than for strict element comparison.

Lexicographical comparison between built-in collections works as follows:

Mappings (instances of dict ) compare equal if and only if they have equal (key, value) pairs. Equality comparison of the keys and values enforces reflexivity.

Outcomes other than equality are resolved consistently, but are not otherwise defined. [5]

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This example shows the difference between charAt and codePointAt . The example calls these methods on escaped supplementary Unicode characters. charAt(0) returns the high surrogate value, which corresponds to \uD835 . codePointAt(0) returns the value for the entire surrogate pair.

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Returns the Unicode code point value at the specified index.



Return Value

Type: Integer

The Unicode code point value at the specified index.


If the points to the beginning of a surrogate pair (the high-surrogate code point), and the character value at the following index points to the low-surrogate code point, this method returns the supplementary code point corresponding to this surrogate pair. Otherwise, this method returns the character value at the given index.

For more information on Unicode and surrogate pairs, see High Quality Suede Leather Men Shoes Lace Up Men Flat Shoes Designer Men Casual Shoes Cheap Sale Shopping Online Cheap Sale Cheapest Price Free Shipping Pay With Visa Buy Cheap Latest Collections pkRaS8a

This example gets the code point value of the first character at index 0, which is the escaped Omega character. Also, the example gets the code point at index 20, which corresponds to the escaped supplementary Unicode characters (a pair of characters). Finally, it verifies that the escaped and unescaped forms of Omega have the same code point values.

The supplementary characters in this example ( \\uD835\\uDD0A ) correspond to mathematical fraktur capital G:

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Returns the Unicode code point value that occurs before the specified index.



Return Value

Type: Integer

The character or Unicode code point value that occurs before the specified index.


If the character value at is the low-surrogate code point, and is not negative and the character at this index location is the high-surrogate code point, this method returns the supplementary code point corresponding to this surrogate pair. If the character value at is an unpaired low-surrogate or high-surrogate code point, the surrogate value is returned.

For more information on Unicode and surrogate pairs, see The Unicode Consortium .

This example gets the code point value of the first character (before index 1), which is the escaped Omega character. Also, the example gets the code point at index 20, which corresponds to the escaped supplementary characters (the two characters before index 22).

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Mark Johnson was absolutely certain he was a victim of discrimination. An African-American professor at a prestigious university, Mark was widely recognized as an expert in his field and an excellent teacher. He had just been granted tenure, and he and his wife - who also taught at the university - decided to buy a house in a leafy neighborhood where they could walk to work, and run home to check on their kids after school.

When Mark called real estate agents, they rhapsodized about the wonderful homes available that would just suit his needs. But when he and his family appeared in their offices, the homes had suddenly been sold, or had been taken off the market. He was sure there was a pattern here, but he had no proof. He decided that he needed to document what was happening, so that he could go to the state Commission Against Discrimination to file a complaint.

Mark first recorded, as best he could remember, his calls and visits to real estate agents, the descriptions of the houses they gave him over the phone, and the substance of their face-to-face conversations. Then he called his friend Richard, who was white, and explained the situation. He asked Richard to call the same agents with a request similar to Mark's, and report what happened.

Just as Mark had suspected, the agents touted what seemed to be the same houses to Richard as they had to Mark. They took Richard to see houses for sale in the neighborhood in question, and invited him to make an offer. When Mark called back, however, "to see if the situation had changed," as he put it to the agents, they said there were unfortunately still no houses available in that area. There were some lovely homes for sale in a neighborhood across town, however.

That was enough for Mark. He took his records, Richard's testimony, and his notes from the follow-up calls to the Commission Against Discrimination, which immediately issued a call for several real estate agents to appear at an exploratory hearing. Even before the hearing, a number of houses in Mark's preferred neighborhood "came on the market unexpectedly." The real estate agents were cited for discriminatory practice and warned that they would be monitored. Mark found a house in the neighborhood he wanted, and now happily takes his tree-lined morning walk to work.

When you have a complaint - whether it concerns housing discrimination, environmental violations, or poor treatment from a community-based organization - it's important to get the details, and to provide evidence when you can. This section explains how to approach the research and information gathering you'll need to do in order to document your complaint properly, and successfully get some action on it.

What is documenting a complaint?

Documenting a complaint means backing it up with as much provable fact or information - documentation - as possible. Mark Johnson, for instance, made a record of all his and Richard's dealings with real estate agents before he went to the Commission Against Discrimination. He knew that his word, or his complaint alone, wasn't necessarily enough to start an investigation.

As we'll discuss below, documenting a complaint can be as simple as taking notes on a conversation, and as complicated as engaging in extensive library research and collecting many pieces of evidence.

Some of the things you may have to document:

Whatever the case, you can't expect a regulatory agency, municipal officials, a newspaper reporter, the entity you're trying to change, or the public to accept your version of events unless you can back it up. That's what documentation is all about.

Why should you document a complaint?

The most important reason to document a complaint is that already mentioned: regulatory agencies, courts, and ombudspersons need evidence in order to sort out the reality of a situation. (That's why we have trials - so that the judge or jury can figure out who's telling the truth.) If you can prove the substance of your complaint, or at least show that all the evidence points in the direction you're suggesting, you've gone a long way toward getting something done about it.

There are other compelling reasons to provide careful documentation for any complaint, however, such as:

Who should document complaints?

As should be obvious by now, anyone who wants to file or register a complaint should document it. If you think there's a problem, you need evidence to convince others that that's the case. There are some people, however, whose documentation may be particularly important.

When should you document complaints?

The great irony about documenting complaints is that - as you often find out later - you should start before you realize you have a complaint. If you take that seriously, you can spend your whole life documenting everything. Since that's probably not how you want to spend your time, you have to make some choices about when you actually try to document what's happening. In fact, there are some specific times when it makes sense to gather evidence.

How do you document complaints?

The first step in documenting a complaint is understanding what kind of documentation you'll need. It will vary, depending upon whom you're registering the complaint with. Once you've settled that question, you then have to make a plan for collecting the documentation, and actually do it.

Determine what kind of documentation you'll need

You may be complaining to an official body - a regulatory agency, a labor union, the personnel department of a company - or you may be taking your complaint public in some way. Whatever the case, you'll have to provide documentation in the form and of the type that's required.

Complaining to an official body

Most regulatory bodies, businesses, institutions, and organizations have some sort of official complaint or grievance procedure. If you're using such a procedure, make sure you know it cold, and follow it carefully. Failing to do so may mean that your complaint won't be heard at all, and to refile it may take months.

In addition to making sure you get everything right, it makes sense to try to identify the actual individual (or panel) that will review the complaint, and try to develop a contact either with that individual or with someone else within the entity who can help you track the progress of the complaint, and answer questions.

Complaining to the entity that's the object of the complaint

Unless you're going through something like an official corporate or organizational grievance procedure - in which case, you should follow the instructions above - you'll need documentation that's both specific enough and powerful enough to convince the entity to change its ways. That may mean proof that it's been doing something illegal, or close to illegal, or simply enough evidence that what it's doing is harmful that it would prefer not to have to face public pressure on the issue. In either case, your documentation will need to include specifics - dates, times, places, people involved, exactly what happened - to make it clear that there's really no room to slide out of the situation.

Using the media to make the complaint public

Just as in the two instances above, the media will want documentation of the specifics of the complaint, but they'll need some other support as well.

When you approach the media, remember the three C's :

Making your complaint public on your own

If you're using a public meeting, a demonstration, a speech, or other public forum, or a self-published flier, article, or website to air your complaint, the documentation you present (not necessarily the same as all the documentation you have) needs to be substantial enough for you to be taken seriously. It also needs to contain enough proof to protect you from slander or libel charges. (As mentioned above, the truth is absolute proof against slander or libel.)

Collect the actual documentation

Try to anticipate the need for documentation

As we discussed earlier, any time you're involved in an advocacy situation that may develop into a complaint, you should be collecting documentation from the very beginning. It's not always possible to anticipate, but if you have any inkling that a complaint is possible, act on it.

Do the research to get the background information you need

Know any relevant laws or regulations inside out. Learn as much as you can about the science, sociology, psychology, economics, or politics involved, as well as the history of the issue. If you're accusing an entity of actually or potentially causing harm, you're much more likely to be listened to if you can back up your complaint with research . If you're challenged, you should be able to discuss the issue with confidence, answer questions, and show why you're registering the complaint. The more informed you are, the greater the chances that your complaint will see action.

Get the basic facts

After background, you'll need specifics. These are the nitty-gritty facts of the situation that may, in fact, be extremely important in getting your complaint resolved.

They include:

Describe, as clearly as possible, exactly what the complaint is about

If the complaint concerns the violation of a law or regulation , for instance, be sure to explain which law or regulation is at issue, and exactly what elements of it were violated. (And be sure you know and understand the details of the law or regulation.) If there's no specific violation, then define and explain your complaint as fully as possible. Your complaint should state both what is occurring that you think is unacceptable, and what you think would be acceptable.

Document exactly what happened

Bespecific, including as much detail as possible, and for as many incidents as possible. The step-by-step sequence of events for each incident (as well as the sequence of incidents) may be important.

Document conversations with the target of the complaint, regulators, etc.

It's important to document exchanges with everyone involved - this includes not only the target of the complaint, but also regulators and officials, those affected by the actions or policies you're complaining about, and anyone else related to the issue. If you can, get conversations, or at least the important parts of them, word-for-word. That may mean using a tape recorder (you'll generally need permission to do that), or simply taking good notes. Be careful to get the name of anyone you're talking to, especially if that person is acting in any official capacity - as a technical assistance person for a government agency, for instance - and to record the time and length of the conversation, so it can be confirmed by phone or appointment records.

Document the effects of each incident, or of the overall pattern of events

There are several types of consequences you might be concerned with, and consequences might come from a single policy or action, from repeated actions over time, or from an unrelated series of careless or intentionally harmful policies or actions by the same entity over time.

Some of the types of consequences you might record:

Provide or obtain as much actual proof of the substance and details of your complaint as possible

This may take some investigative research .

You may need:

Be prepared to present your documentation, formally or informally

Once you've assembled the documentation you need, you may have to present it to whomever you must convince in order to see your complaint acted upon. Some of the situations you might find yourself in:

In any of these situations, or others where you're asked to back up your complaint, it's important that your documentation be accurate and well-organized. In a legislative hearing or court-related situation, you may be grilled by lawyers who'll try to rattle you and shake your story or catch you in a contradiction. You can be unshakable if you have your facts straight beforehand.

Some pointers:

Another important point to remember is to protect your documentation. Make backups of all computer files and disks, CD's or DVD's. Make copies of all photographs and documents. Store your backups and copies away from your computer and your originals. The danger here is not that they'll be stolen or altered - although, depending upon the nature and the target of your complaint, that may be possible - but rather that they'll be lost or accidentally destroyed.

Unless it's absolutely necessary, don't give out your originals, and provide copies where you have to. Never give an original document, photograph, or other documentation to anyone other than an official of a legislative committee, regulatory body, law enforcement agency, or court. And don't give them originals, either, if they'll take a copy.

Now that you have assembled the documentation for your complaint, you're ready to present it - to the offender, to a regulatory agency, to the courts, to the media, or to the public. You can be confident that you've done all you can to assure that your complaint is attended to and resolved.

In Summary

Filing a complaint will not necessarily bring action unless you can back it up with facts. That means you may have to document not only the facts of the complaint, but the consequences of the action or policy you're complaining about, who's responsible, whether or not the consequence was intentional, and your own standing to complain.

In addition to providing the proof you need to get your complaint resolved, properly documenting a complaint increases your own credibility as well. It can increase the ability of a regulator or court to act, establish intention, protect you from charges of libel or slander, and give you a moral advantage.

Although anyone can - and should - document a complaint, documentation from experts in the field, people affected by the consequences of the action or policy in question, people on the inside of the entity at fault, or respected community figures may be especially powerful. And although complaints should always be documented, it's particularly important to document them when you're preparing for a regulatory or court hearing; when you're advocating for or against a particular piece of legislation or policy; when you're trying to gain organizational change; when you're accusing an entity of wrongdoing; when you suspect consumer (or other) fraud; or when you're in danger of a libel or slander suit.

Your documentation needs to be appropriate to the entity you're complaining to. Regulatory bodies, entities who are targets of the complaint, the press, and the public at large may each respond to different kinds and levels of documentation. You have to know what's necessary and be prepared to provide it.

Actually amassing documentation for a complaint includes a number of elements:

If you can do all this, you have a very good chance of seeing your complaint acted on and resolved.

This doesn't mean that you have to have a doctorate in chemistry to document an environmental complaint, for instance, but rather that you've had some relevant experience. That experience could be personal - with the negative health consequences of a particular environmental violation, for instance.

There is more. The Jews have a theological idea called anamnesis. This is a technical term for a certain type of remembering. It is a remembrance that is not just a sentimental memory of a past event, but a dynamic, ritualistic re-enactment of an event which brings the event into the present moment and brings the participants into the event that happened once in the past. If you like it is liturgical time travel! This is why Jesus says, “Do this in remembrance of me” and why the church calls for “full participation” in the Mass.

Again, the catechism explains this clearly and simply:

The Eucharist is the memorial of Christ’s Passover, the making present and the sacramental offering of his unique sacrifice, in the liturgy of the Church which is his Body. In all the Eucharistic Prayers we find after the words of institution a prayer called the anamnesis or memorial.

1363 In the sense of Sacred Scripture the memorial is not merely the recollection of past events but the proclamation of the mighty works wrought by God for men. 184 In the liturgical celebration of these events, they become in a certain way present and real. This is how Israel understands its liberation from Egypt: every time Passover is celebrated, the Exodus events are made present to the memory of believers so that they may conform their lives to them.

1364 In the New Testament, the memorial takes on new meaning. When the Church celebrates the Eucharist, she commemorates Christ’s Passover, and it is made present the sacrifice Christ offered once for all on the cross remains ever present. 185 “As often as the sacrifice of the Cross by which ‘Christ our Pasch has been sacrificed’ is celebrated on the altar, the work of our redemption is carried out.” 186

1365 Because it is the memorial of Christ’s Passover, the Eucharist is also a sacrifice. The sacrificial character of the Eucharist is manifested in the very words of institution: “This is my body which is given for you” and “This cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood.” 187 In the Eucharist Christ gives us the very body which he gave up for us on the cross, the very blood which he “poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.” 188

1366 The Eucharist is thus a sacrifice because it re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of the cross, because it is its memorial and because it applies its fruit:

1367 The sacrifice of Christ and the sacrifice of the Eucharist are one single sacrifice : “The victim is one and the same: the same now offers through the ministry of priests, who then offered himself on the cross; only the manner of offering is different.” “And since in this divine sacrifice which is celebrated in the Mass, the same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross is contained and is offered in an unbloody manner... this sacrifice is truly propitiatory.” 1

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